Almost all highly developed countries faced a decline of the birth rate. Depopulation has seriously affected countries that occupy a leading position in the world economy.
According to demographers, such a disappointing trend will lead to the fact that in 50 years the population of most countries of the world will be reduced by half.
“The trend is obvious – the birth rate in the world is falling, and in many countries, there is a process of population reduction. There should be 2 children per woman, but today, for a number of reasons, the average woman cannot have these two children and many cannot give birth to a single child at all,” Natalia Kanem, Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund.
The main reason is that more and more women and men are facing the problem of infertility. According to the statistics of medical centers, the most common causes of infertility for women are various problems with ovulation, uterine pathology, ovarian dysfunction, hormonal disorders, menopause. Doctors call the most common causes of male infertility varicocele, which is found in about 40% of cases, anomalies in the development of the testicles and infectious and inflammatory lesions of the accessory sex glands.
Today couples of different ages face infertility. After long and costly examinations and treatments, families go to assisted reproductive technologies, using the last chance to become parents. Medicine has come a long way in recent decades. Eggs and mitochondria donation, surrogate motherhood allow those, who have almost lost this hope, to become parents.
But even though assisted reproductive technology has been around for more than four decades, Surrogacy and egg donation is still largely unaffordable in many parts of the world. Government policy in many countries, public organizations insist that surrogacy and egg donation are immoral and are used only as a powerful tool for making money. But, millions of infertile families for whom this is the only chance to become parents, do not think so. As well as doctors.
“My experience shows that money does not play a big role in such cases. It’s not about the money. You know, as a doctor in reproductive medicine for over 20 years, I can assure you that this is not a form of business. It is a form of medical care and care that makes people happy”, – says a leading specialist in reproductive medicine in Europe.
Doctors and scientists are actively developing ART and offering more and more new methods to become parents. This area of medicine is in demand since numerous films about the possible overpopulation of the planet turned out to be a myth. Today, even China, which for more than 35 years has pursued a “one-family-one-child” demographic policy, has begun to pay subsidies for the birth of a second and third child due to falling birth rates.
In the Republic of Korea, the situation is not better. So, in 2020, South Korea reported a population decline for the first time in history. The country’s total fertility rate hit a historic low of 0.84 in 2020. Politicians have warned that the country could face a demographic shock starting in 2030-2040 as a result of population decline and social ageing if it does not resolve demographic problems in a timely manner.
As practice shows, assisted reproductive technologies remain a lifeline for the survival of mankind and the preservation of nations. Therefore, the adoption of laws and policies governing the reproduction question may be essential to ensure the survival of Homo sapiens on Earth.